Tyramine is a naturally occurring compound in the body and is found in some foods. It is derived from the amino acid tyrosine. Some studies have shown that tyramine can cause migraine. Does this mean that it is potentially dangerous? If yes, what can you do?
What is tyramine?
Tyramine is monoamine (a compound that is a neurotransmitter). It naturally occurs in some foods, plants and animals. Fermentation, aging or spoilage can also produce tyramine
Our bodies contain an enzyme called monoamine oxidase (MAO). MAO helps to handle tyramine.
If you have insufficient MAO in the system, eating foods with tyramine can cause migraine ( 1 )
In the gut, MAO also prevents accumulation of potentially harmful substances. MAO degrades excess tyramine in the body, which can then be excreted.
Tyramine itself is not harmful as it helps to regulate blood pressure levels ( 2 ). in excess, tyramine may cause blood pressure spikes, which may be life-threatening
Here we should discuss monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These are drugs that slow down the action of MAO. This stops MAO from preventing the build up of tyramine, which leads to increased levels of tyramine in your system ( 4 ).
If you also consume foods high in tyramine, this only contributes to the problem by causing tyramine
What are high tyramine foods (to be avoided)
If you are taking MAOI, you should avoid the following foods ( 5 ). They contain tyramine, so taking them along with medication can raise the tyramine to dangerous levels in your body:
- All old and mature cheeses
- All incorrectly stored meats, birds and fish
- Dried sausages such as pepperoni, salami
- Fermented soy products such as soy sauce, soy paste, fermented tofu, tamara, mozo soup, nato, tempe, shoyu and teriyaki
- All alcoholic beverages (including unpasteurized beers and beer cranes or microbrewery)
The only cheeses that can to consider are cottage cheese, cream cheese, ricotta, partly skimmed mozzarella. Make sure you consume them before their expiration date. Or even better – to eat them right after opening when they are the freshest ones. People who have an intolerance to amines (such as tyramine or histamine) or who are taking MAOI. If you have an amine intolerance, you may experience palpitations, headaches, vomiting and nausea ( 6 ). Excess tyramine in your system may cause a hypertonic crisis ( 2 ). This is marked by a dramatic increase in blood pressure. The hypertonic crisis can cause:
How can you limit tyramine intake?
The first step is to avoid foods high in amines. You can then replace them with the following foods
- Fresh, frozen or canned vegetables
- Fresh or frozen meat, fish, poultry and eggs
- ] Wheat
- Cooked and dried cereals
- Fresh, frozen or canned
- Milk and yoghurt
- Coffee and tea free from caffeine
- days of purchase.
- Read all food and beverage labels for the presence of amines. They usually end up with an amine in their names.
- Avoid obsolete, acidic or fermented foods.
- Eat preserved or frozen foods right after opening them.
- Throws overburdened, rotten or moldy foods into the trash.
- Do not forget that the food will not reduce the amount of tyramine. Your body already has it. But if you have a migraine or are taking MAOIs, you should consult your doctor and reduce your tyramine consumption
Did you know about the relationship between tyramine and migraine? Let us know by leaving a comment in the box below.
- " The London Letter " National Center for Biotechnological Information.
- " Hypertonic Crisis and Cheese " Indian Journal of Psychiatry, American National Library of Medicine.
- " Ideas and Food Menus … Center.
- " Important Information To Know When … " National Institute of Health Care Clinical Center. Translusive Allergy, American National Library of Medicine.
- " Low Tyramine Diet " University of Wisconsin-Madison, Medical School and Public Health. What foods to avoid first appeared on STYLECRAZE .